Is Justice Accessible To Dalit Employee In Private Workplaces?

Caste came as a shock to the international audience when the State of California filed a law suit on caste discrimination against CISCO systems. While California is trying to locate caste within the parameters of religion, one would assume that the Indian legal system is adequate to protect a Dalit against caste discrimination.  #innlive unravels the hurdles posed for ascertaining a conviction for caste based discrimination in workplace in Indian laws.

In June, the State of California sued CISCO Systems on the grounds of caste-based discrimination. The lawsuit outlined harassment faced by an Indian American employee on the basis of his caste.

California has alleged that the technology giant failed to guarantee a workplace free from hostility and unlawful discrimination. However, since Title VII of the Civil Rights Act does not mention ‘caste’, the case before the California Court lies in interpreting to read caste into an already prohibited ground of ‘religion’.

Efforts have been previously made in the international fora to prohibit caste discrimination by including it under the ambit of ‘descent’ or ‘religion.’

This instance is indicative of the persistent problem of caste discrimination in employment. While the United States lacks a legal structure that prohibits caste discrimination explicitly, in India on the other hand, caste discrimination has been constitutionally prohibited.

So the question is, does India possess enough safeguards to hold a private employer accountable for caste-based discrimination at the workplace in a court of law?

Inadequacy of Existing Provisions

The Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 [PCR Act] was enacted to punish preaching and practicing of ‘Untouchability.’ The PCR Act outlaws enforcing a “social disability” on the grounds of untouchability in the practice of any profession.

As noted by the Supreme Court in the National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights versus Union of India, the Act fails to specifically target indirect and direct acts of workplace caste discrimination, in addition to overall poor implementation.

Due to the inadequacy of the PCR Act, the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act [POA Act] was enacted in 1989. The Act enlarged the scope of criminal liability for actions not covered under the Indian Penal Code [IPC] and the PCR Act.

Though Section 4(za)(E) of the Act penalises obstruction of a member of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes community from practicing any profession. However, the range of acts criminalised are ‘severe’ in nature.

While these provisions could be utilized to punish an individual, the larger culture and discriminatory structures underlying the working of the organization are neither addressed nor dismantled.

Discriminatory behaviour at the workplace, akin to the incidents described in the CISCO petition, are made up of microaggressions and specific non-observable moments which prima facie would not qualify as casteist. This would make it hard for incidents of caste-based employment discrimination to pass the criminal standard of ‘atrocity’ under the Act. Moreover, like the PCA Act, the POA Act has also not been properly enforced.

The laws are vague, non-specific, and fail to sufficiently engage with workplace discrimination.

Firstly, neither of the laws outline any procedure for complaints, inquiry, or the procedure after the punishment to be followed by the employee. Secondly, the provisions import criminalisation only on the individual(s) – with no focus on the role of the organization.

In his critique of anti-discrimination law, Neil Gotanda argues “when  laws  focus only on bilateral employment relations, they exclude any understanding that race has institutional or structural dimensions beyond the formal racial classification.”

Similarly, the extant provisions exclude any understanding that Caste can have institutional or structural dimensions. While these provisions could be utilized to punish an individual, the larger culture and discriminatory structures underlying the working of the organization are neither addressed nor dismantled.

On these counts, it’s safe to say that India lacks a legal framework to address caste-based discrimination in employment effectively.

There is a Right to Equality at Work guaranteed under the Constitution, and a corresponding duty on the State not to violate this right.

Though India has certain laws prohibiting caste discrimination, these laws fail to recognize the various ways in which discrimination manifests in the workplace.

Duty of the State to protect the Right to Equality at the Workplace

The Constitution not only recognizes a right against discrimination but also obligates the State to eradicate caste discrimination through labour law.

Article 14 & 15(1) recognizes the right to non-discrimination based on caste, and Article 19(1)(g) recognizes the freedom to practice any profession.

There is a Right to Equality at Work guaranteed under the Constitution, and a corresponding duty on the State not to violate this right. Flowing from this duty of the State, legislation like the Equal Remuneration Act 1976 [ERA], the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2016 [RPD Act], and the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act 2013 [POSH Act] prohibit discrimination based on gender and disability at the workplace.

The purpose of labour law is to ensure that inviolable rights are safeguarded even in the private sphere. This is evident in the scheme of the POSH Act and the RPD Act.

The rights enumerated in Part III are vertical in nature, enforceable only against the State and its instrumentalities. Hence, a claim for violation of fundamental rights guaranteed under Article 14 and Article 15(1) cannot be brought against a private employer. However, the verticality of these provisions cannot be an impediment to prohibit non-discrimination.

Part III of the Constitution casts an obligation on the State to regulate private employers and prohibit discrimination in employment.

This was the principle underlying the Supreme Court’s decision in Vishaka & Ors v State of RajasthanThe Court declared the failure of the State in regulating both private and public workplaces is violative of the petitioner’s fundamental rights under Article 14, 19, and 21.

By recognizing the lacunae in law, the Court issued the famous Vishaka guidelines – which later on led to the enactment of the POSH Act.

The purpose of labour law is to ensure that inviolable rights are safeguarded even in the private sphere. This is evident in the scheme of the POSH Act and the RPD Act.

Enacting another law is not an end-all solution for caste discrimination at work. Especially when organizations indulge in “discrimination laundering”

The Constitution asks the State to promote the educational and economic rights of Dalits and Adivasis (Article 46 and part XVI), as well as ensure just and humane conditions of work (Article 42).

Hence, there is a duty on the State to ensure that there is no discrimination on caste in any workspace. Shashi Tharoor’s Anti-Discrimination and Equality Bill 2016 and CLPR’s Equality Bill 2019 are examples of how a norm prohibiting caste discrimination in employment spaces can be framed.

Enacting another law is not an end-all solution for caste discrimination at work. Especially when organizations indulge in “discrimination laundering”– where they shape anti-discrimination laws to remove any pressure on themselves and keep discriminatory structures intact.

Nonetheless, it is a starting point in addressing a pressing social issue and an opportunity to fulfill the vision of anti-discrimination enshrined in the Constitution.

(Author Riddhi Shetty is a student at NALSAR University of Law. Views are personal.)

Schools Reopening In Maharashtra decided After Assessing The Situation

While the Union Education Ministry has issued guide­ lines to States on the reopen­ ing of schools and colleges from October 15, Maharash­ tra Minister of Higher and Technical Education Uday Samant on Tuesday said that in the current pandemic sit­ uation in the State it was not conducive to do so.

The Minister hinted that Maharashtra would be reo­ pening schools and colleges only after assessing the CO­ VID­19 situation.

“The decision to open up colleges will have to be based on the current spread of COVID­19 in the State… Maharashtra’s pandemic sit­ uation has not yet normal­ ised. Hence, it will not be ap­ propriate to physically conduct classes,” Mr. Sa­ mant said after a review meeting of preparations for final year exams with the authorities of the Savitribai Phule Pune University (SPPU). He said that he had directed educational institu­ tions to stop the collection of development fees from stu­ dents as there had been no

physical classes for the last few months.

Stating that the final year examinations would be con­ ducted while taking due care of the health of the students, Mr. Samant said that two­ and­a­half lakh students would be appearing for the final year examinations un­ der the SPPU.

“Of them, two lakh stu­ dents will be taking the ex­ ams online. The rest 50,000

students will be writing the

exams offline,” Mr. Samant said, adding that all provi­ sions had been made to en­ sure that students do not en­ counter any technical problems while taking their exams and that no student would be deprived of the ex­ ams. The disabled students will be get 20 extra minutes to complete their papers.

“For those appearing physically at the 113 exam

centres, zilla parishad and Pune civic body authorities must ensure that the facili­ ties are properly sanitised,” he said.

Mr. Samant further said that practice question pap­ ers would be given from Oc­ tober 8 while a grievance re­ dressal centre would be set up to deal with any problem students might encounter.

However, a number of stu­ dents across the State, espe­ cially in rural areas, are ap­ prehensive about their online exams with several complaining about technical glitches, hall tickets, and power failure among others.

“About 60% of the stu­ dents appearing for the final year examinations are from the rural areas. They face a range of problems from er­ ratic electricity supply to poor range for mobile phones. Already, students appearing for Mumbai Un­ iversity’s final year exams have been bedevilled with poor internet connectivity and power outages with ser­ ver failure and phones hang­ ing in the middle of their ex­ aminations,” student leader Kuldeep Ambekar said.

How The Farmer Gets MSP For Crop Production?

Farmers from different villag­ es in Delhi alleged that they are not getting the Minimum Support Price (MSP) for their produce in markets and ma­ ny times, suffer losses des­ pite the Delhi government promising higher prices than the MSP.

“A week ago, I sold about 17 quintals of bajra for ₹1,250/ quintal to a middleman in Najafgarh mandi. The MSP is more than ₹2,100. But we do not get that rate and there is no government control at the mandi. Also, the government does not buy from us,” said 65­year­old Ram Kumar, a farmer from Kharkhari Jat­ mal village in Delhi.

Bharatiya Kisan Union (BKU) Delhi in­charge Viren­ der Dagar said the Delhi go­ vernment had promised them Swaminathan Commit­ tee rates for their produce, which is higher than the MSP, but they do not even get the MSP.

Naresh Kumar, Chairman of Najafgarh Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC), where farmers go to sell their produce, said the FCI (Food Corporation of In­ dia) under the Centre has not been procuring any produce from Delhi’s markets since 2015. He said they have writ­ ten multiple letters to the FCI

on the same, but in vain. “The Delhi government has no power to buy produce from farmers and it has no storage. If FCI buys from the farmer, then they will buy at MS. But now when a private person buys, farmers do not get the MSP in most cases,” Mr. Kumar said. He said the farmers are suffering losses

because of this problem.
On Tuesday, the BKU gave a memorandum to Chief Mi­ nister Arvind Kejriwal on the issue and he has promised to

look into the matter.

Panel report

In February 2019, the Delhi government had said they have “conceptualised” the implementation of recom­ mendations of the Swami­ nathan Committee report on farmers that “MSP should be

at least 50% more than the weighted average cost of pro­ duction” under a scheme — Mukhya Mantri Kisan Mitra Yojna.

An “Agriculture Confe­ rence on Implementation of Recommendations of Swami­ nathan Committee” was also held by Development Minis­ ter Gopal Rai. The proposed MSP, with 50% margin at the cost of production, was ₹2,616/ quintal and ₹2,667/ quintal for wheat and paddy respectively.

“The proposed MSP struc­ ture is higher than the Go­ vernment of India MSP by ₹776/quintal for wheat and ₹897/quintal for paddy. It is likely to incur an additional liability of ₹96.38 crore, if im­ plemented,” an official state­ ment had said. The FCI was supposed to buy produce

from the farmers at the new higher MSP and the Delhi go­ vernment was to give the ex­ tra amount to the Centre. But the scheme did not work out as FCI is not buying the pro­ duce, according to Delhi go­ vernment officials.

Mr. Kumar and other farmers said their counter­ parts in Haryana were get­ ting the MSP of ₹2,150/quin­ tal for bajra. “After all my expenses in ploughing, sow­ ing, cost of manure and cut­ ting, I am losing money by selling it at ₹1,250/quintal. But what can I do?” said the farmer, who owns two acres of land.

Kamal Singh, 60, from the same village said he had sold 27 quintals of wheat at ₹1,680/ quintal, which is less than the MSP of ₹1,925/quin­ tal of 2019.Many others from the village had similar com­ plaints and said that always middlemen buy from them.

Yogesh Phalswal, 25, of Ghumman Hera village said bajra is being sold for around ₹1,400/quintal and they do not get MSP. He also showed a WhatsApp message of the purported rates of different produce being sold in the market and all prices in the list, expect for rice, was low­ er than MSP.

A Delhi government spo­ kesperson refused to res­ pond to queries.

Overcome Rancor After The End Of Legal Feuds?

IT is a fact of criminal psychology that whether the crime is detected or not, punished or not, the criminal carries the burden of the crime, which is far heavier, like in the case of the sailor who killed an albatross and carried it forever around his neck. It is possible to believe that the two court verdicts — that of the Supreme Court last November and of the CBI special court in Lucknow recently — have ended the Ram Mandir-Babri Masjid matter, technically speaking, in favor of the Hindus, and based on these two legal verdicts, there was no wrongdoing of any kind on the part of Hindu groups.

But there are two clear acts of crime committed by Hindu groups. The first was trespass on the inter- vening night of December 23-24, 1949, when the idols of Ram Lalla were stealthily placed inside the mosque, and the second was the day- time demolition of the mosque on December 6, 1992. The Supreme Court verdict declaring the site as belonging to the Hindu groups does not absolve them of the crime of tres- pass, nor does it clear them of the criminal act of demolition. The sec- ond verdict has only declared ‘lack of evidence’ against the 32 accused,

including former Union ministers LK Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi and Uma Bharti. This does not imply that there was no wrongdoing, or that there were no criminals who brought down the mosque.

The crimes remain as clear as day- light. And they remain a shameful aspect of the Ram temple agitation. Ironically, the BJP, which was at the head of the agitation and had gath- ered a crowd which its leaders could not control in Ayodhya on December 6, 1992, had the temerity and dishon- esty to move a no-confidence motion against the demolition. Using his rhetorical flourish, Vajpayee said on December 17, 1992: “I am ready to go one step ahead and ask those kar sevaks who were small in number to come forward and openly confess that they have demolished the struc- ture and for that they are prepared to face the music.” But by the time he ended his speech, Vajpayee almost justified the demolition. But not even his cunning rhetoric could wipe away the crime.

The CBI special court, which had conducted the trial regarding the demolition of Babri Masjid, ‘freed’ the 32 accused, including Advani, Joshi, and Uma Bharti, for ‘lack of evidence’. The prosecution pressed the charge of a meticulously planned crime amounting to a conspiracy. There were inherent weaknesses in a conspiracy charge because it requires to be proved that there was a clear chain of events that led from hatching the plan to executing it. Given the events preceding the gathering of around 200,000 people in Ayodhya and to the demolition that followed, it

would have been difficult to estab- lish the trail of the crime. But dem- olition remains a crime.

So, the sarcastic comments of critics that ‘no one demolished Babri Masjid’ and that it fell on its own show more anger and frustration, which is understandable, but which do not qualify to be a reasoned view. The unfolding of events on December 6 shows that the demolition was plausible given the overwhelming crowd which turned into a frenzied mob. The CBI special court did not condone the demolition because it had to fix the responsibility of who did it. This does not also mean that no one did it because the 32 accused

were acquitted.
Where legality ends, the moral and

the psychological burden of the criminals and conspirators begins. Should Advani, Joshi, Bharti, and the rest of the BJP and Vishwa Hin- du Parishad leadership own moral responsibility for the demolition? Should they apologize to the Muslim community that it was a moral wrong and a legal crime to have demolished a place of worship, whatever the dispute at stake? They should for their own sake and for the sake of communal amity in the country. Winning legal battles is not the end of the story. There is a need for gestures of goodwill to end the rancor that hangs in the air at the

end of legal feuds.
Of course, we recall Advani’s

statement at the end of the day on December 6: “This is the saddest day of my life.” Advani had clearly maintained that it was not the intention of the organizers of the karseva on December 6, 1992, to bring down the mosque. There are enough arguments, and one can even admit plausible ones, that Advani was just being hypocritical, that he was happy the mosque was destroyed. The critics of the then Prime Minister PV Narasimha Rao also claim that Rao, too, was happy in the cynical sense that the demolition had simplified the dispute. But beyond Machiavellian, or if you

prefer Chanakyan, calculations, there is a need for reconciliation between the contending communi- ties of Hindus and Muslims. The triumphalism of the Hindus must be reined in, and the resentment and despair of the Muslims should be addressed and removed.

The communal leaders on both sides have made the Babri Masjid issue a bitter dispute between the two communities. The Hindu groups can turn Ayodhya into a tourist spot, but it will never attain the sanctity of Rama’s birthplace because it was achieved through two acts of crime. There must be enough contrition on the part of Hindu groups before they can breathe easy and sleep well.

Night Cremation For Law, Order: UP Govt To SC

  • State govt claims it had intel inputs that protests could turn violent; bench terms crime ‘horrifying’

A 19-year-old Dalit gang rape victim was cremated in the dead of the night last week to avert an extraordinary law- and-order problem posed by protesters and political parties intent on stoking caste clashes, the state government told the Supreme Court, which on Tues- day described the incident as “horrible” and “extraordinary”.

A three-judge bench of the apex court was hearing a public interest litigation seeking a Cen- tral Bureau of Investigation (CBI) probe into the case.

The bench, headed by Chief Justice of India (CJI) SA Bobde, directed the state government to place on record the steps taken to ensure protection of witnesses even as the UP government acquiesced to a top court-moni- tored CBI probe into the Septem- ber 14 incident and the woman’s death on September 29 that trig-

ment. The court also asked the state to ascertain whether the family engaged a lawyer and sought details of the scope of proceedings relating to the inci- dent before the Allahabad high court. The next hearing is on October 8.

The court proceedings came a day after the state government ordered a probe into an “interna- tional conspiracy” to destablise the administration.

In a 129-page affidavit, the state government contended “intelligence inputs” pointed to political parties and organisations trying to exploit the situation on September 30 – a day after the victim died at Delhi’s Safdarjung hospital, triggering street protests.

“Intelligence inputs were specifically received late at night on September 29 that lakhs of protestors of both communities along with supporters of some political parties and media will assemble on the morning of September 30 at the village. The [Hathras] district administration took the decision to convince the parents of the victim to cremate her with all religious rites at night to avoid large scale violence,” the affidavit said.

Pressed for answers


  • Intelligence inputs pointed to political parties and organisations trying to exploit the situation
  • Lakhs of protesters planned to assemble on September 30, gathering could have turned violent
  • Hence, family was asked to cremate the victim as per religious customs
  • There should be a CBI probe into alleged criminal conspiracy to spread caste conflict, instigate violence, and into propaganda
  • A forensic report showed that the woman was not raped


  • The family has said that they were locked inside while some members were forcibly taken for cremation in the dead of the night
  • The government took the unusual step of sealing off Hathras to outsiders, including the media
  • The initial delay in the forensic examination may have led to crucial evidence being lost


“It is a horrible incident. It is

extraordinary. We want to know from you whether witness protection plan is in place. File an affidavit.”

“What is the present scope of the proceedings before the high court and how can we widen it and make it more relevant.”

SSD vs Hard Drive

Hard Drive vs SSD- The Difference

You must have heard about SSD or HDD and have thought at-least-once that what is the difference between both of them. The basic answer is that both of them are storage devices. But they are different in terms of specifications and many more features. Before giving any conclusion to hard drive vs SSD let me explain to you what exactly Hard drive and SSD are.

HDD or Hard Drive

Hard Disk vs HDD

IBM introduced the hard disk in1965. The HDD stands for “Hard Disk Drive”. A hard disk is a mass storage device. The data stored in a hard disk can be recovered at a very fast speed. Today more than 150 companies have produced hard disk drives. The hard disk is made up of the platters. Each and every platter is a thin, metal plate is circular coated on both sides with magnetic material. The speed of the hard disk is recorded in revolution per minute (RPM). All these Platters are placed half an inch apart from each other. Each platter has an upper and lower surface. Each surface of a platter has a corresponding read/write head attached to a moveable arm. 

All the disks of the hard disk drive move simultaneously, the central shift rotates in the same direction and at the same speed. In a hard disk drive, the information pack is stored on both the surface of each and every disk plate except the upper surface of the top plate and the lower surface of the bottom plate. Each and every disk has a number of invisible co-centric circles called tracks. The tracks are numbered starting with zero(0) from outside. Each and every track is divided into sectors. The size of the sectors may vary. 

Advantages Of Hard Disk:-

  • The capacity of the Hard Disk is large.
  • It is very faster than optical disks like DVDs.
  • The Hard disk has persistent storage.
  • It can easily be replaced and upgraded.

Disadvantages Of Hard Disk:-

  • The Disk surface of the hard disk can be damaged.
  • It has heavy power consumption.
  • Very Noisy.
  • The read and write speed of HDD is slower than RAM.

Best 5 Hard Disk Drive:-

  • Buffalo MiniStation Extreme NFC.
  • Samsung T5 SSD.
  • Western Digital My Passport Ultra 4TB.
  • WD My Book Duo 4TB.
  • Adata SD700.


Hard Disk vs SSD

Sandisk introduced the SSD in 1991. SSD stands for “Solid State Drive”. It is a device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. It has an in/out interface in the form of SATA or PCle that feeds power and transfers data. SSD has no moving mechanical components that distinguish them from conventional storage devices such as HDD. The standard disk drives HDD which has been the predominant today tie storage for both computers and laptops. SSD uses flash memory technology which involves no moving parts. Flash memory is much faster than HDD, but it is more expensive. Solid State Drives are durable, run cooler, and consume less energy. 

Types Of SSD

  • PCIe and NVMe SSDs:- PCIe stands for “PCI Express. It is used to connect graphic cards and network cards. This type of interface gives you high bandwidth and a low amount of latency and making it ideal when you need fast communication between SSD and RAM/CPU. Solid State Drives that use this connection are based on the NVMe (Non-volatile Memory Express Standard), it offers high input-output per second and low latency than SATA.
  • mSATA III, SATA III, and SSDs:- SATA stands for “Serial Advanced Technology Attachment”. It is an older interface designed for storage

Advantages Of SSD

  • Speed:- An SSD has access to a speed of 35 to 200 microseconds which is nearly 100 times faster than HDD. The faster access speed means the program can run more quickly which is very significant especially for programs that access large amounts of data often like your operating system and software.
  • Reliability:- The SSD has no moving part is used flash memory to store data which provides better performance and reliability.
  • Power:- The SSD uses less power than standard HDD, which means more energy saving, less electricity bill, and an increase in battery life on your laptop.
  • Noise:- SSD has no moving parts. SSD generates no noise.
  • Size:- Size of SSD is much smaller than HDD. SSD is available in 2.5 inches,1.8 inches, and one inch. This means increasing space and a decrease in size which is very good for us.

Disadvantages Of SSD

  • SSD’s are more expensive than other storage devices.
  • Data extraction is a very difficult and lengthy process in SSD.
  • SSD has a limited number of memory chips which leads to unrecoverable data loss.
  • The data recovery process in SSD is very expensive.

Best 5 Solid State Drives

  • Samsung 970 EVO Plus (512 GB).
  • Sabrent Rocket Q (8 TB).
  • Patriot Viper VPR100.
  • WD Blue SN550 (250 GB).
  • Samsung 860 EVO (250 GB).

Hard Drive vs SSD – Conclusion

In terms of speed between HDD and SSD, Solid State Drive (SSD) are much faster than Hard disk drive (HDD). Today, HDD has a storage capacity from 1TB to 10TB. While SSD has a storage capacity from 120 GB to 4 TB. The price of SSD is very expensive as compared to HDD. Solid State Drive is more reliable than Hard Disk Drive and very less prone to accidental damage. The power consumption of HDD is more as compared to SSD, as it involves mechanical moving parts. The data durability of HDD is more durable than SSD. 

Hard Disk Drives win on price and capacity. In terms of speed, ruggedness, form factor, noise, and fragmentation (a subset of speed) SSD performs better. If the price and capacity were not the major issues, Solid State Drive would be the winner.

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Seo Boost Blogger Template is a minimal Blogspot theme, that lets you launch a fully functional simple site in no more than a minute.

Make your content look flawless with this specially designed theme and cleanest typography. This template is very flexible, easy for customizing and well optimized, approaches for any topic like News Blog and professional use.

This theme is ideal for Lifestyle, Fashion, Games, Food, Blog, Health, Sports, Travel Technology, Business or Entertainment websites.

10. SEO Hub: Best Blogger Template For Adsense Approval

SeoHub Fast Loading

Live Demo | Download

SeoHub Fast Loading Blogger Template is the most SEO optimized blogger template in the current date, the template has lots of unique features and perfectly optimized codes to perform great in various search engines.

You can use this template for almost any kind of blog but it is best suitable for niche blogs, tech, news, blog, magazine, daily blogs, food blogs, authority and best for event blogs.

11. Sora Front: Blogger Template For Adsense Approval

sora front free blogger template

Live Demo | Download

Sora Front Minimal Blogger Template layout may be a multi-purpose, HTML5 and CSS3 Blogger topic.

It is 2 column formats based on Blogspot subject. The topic is a 100% responsive plan that makes it consistent with a wide assortment of gadgets and screen resolutions.

Sora Front is simple to customize through its broaden cluster of distinctive and straightforward choices that are exceptionally simple to get it.

12. Publisher: Seo Friendly Blogger Template

publisher blogger free template

Live Demo | Download

Publisher Simple Blogger Template layout is exceedingly optimized for speed and execution to conveys the finest client encounter. It’s perfect for numerous specialties that incorporate breaking news, daily papers, legislative issues, don, gaming, innovation, travel and much more.

13. Sora One: Best Blogger Templates For Adsense


Live Demo | Download

Sora One Blogger Template is a feature-full and perfect blogging blogger theme. This template is very flexible, easy for customizing and well optimized, approaches for any topic like News Blog and professional use.

This theme is ideal for Lifestyle, Fashion, Games, Food, Blog, Health, Sports, Travel Technology, Business or Entertainment websites.

14. Simpleon Blogger Template


Live Demo | Download

Simpleon blogger template is a clean and fast loading theme perfect for a blog that has viral content. As it is saying, “Simpler is better” This blogger template works on it completely. Designed by Themeindie. 

15. NewsPro Free Blogger Template


Live Demo | Download

NewsPro Blogger Template is a magazine type SEO ready blogger template with various types of content-based featured post widgets. it is an advance blogger template with tons of built-in features. this template is mainly focused on news blogs but also can be used for tech, review, movie, howTo, sports, niche, authority, schools, institutions, etc.

Best #SEO #Friendly and #Adsense #Friendly #Blogger #Templates For Free @MangeshBhardwajEnter Tweet Content here…Click to Tweet 

16. Sora Ads Blogger Template


Live Demo | Download

Sora Ads Blogger Template specially designed for blogging with ads monetization and designed by sora. Blue, Personal Pages, Email Subscription Widget Ready, Breadcrumb Navigation Ready, 3 Columns, 2 Sidebars, Left and Right Sidebars, Magazine, Ads Ready, Technology, White, Clean, Minimalist, Seo Ready, Magazine, Free Premium, Post Thumbnails, Responsive, Social Bookmark Ready, Drop Down Menu.

17. Gridster Adsense Friendly Blogger Template

Gridster Free Blogger Template

Live Demo | Download

Gridster is a free Blogger template with 2 columns, responsive design, SEO friendly, right-sidebar, gallery-styled, minimalist, an exclusive design for Blogger, ads ready, social bookmarking icons, posts thumbnails, breadcrumbs, pagination, related posts support, well designed threaded comments and neutral colors.

18. Magone News Responsive Blogger Template

Magone News Responsive Blogger Template

Live Demo | Download

Sora News Blogger Templates is a blogger template powerhouse theme with many cutting-edge functions and a design that’s going to leave an enduring effect. ideal for style blogs, lifestyle blogs, travel blogs, meals blogs, craft, tech, creative, pictures, and so forth.

19. Masy Blogger Template 


Live Demo | Download

Masy Blogger Template is a super professional and premium looking free blogger theme. Loaded with tons of features and useful widgets, it lets you create some exceptional out of nothing. You can easily create beautiful looking magazine layouts in no time. 

20. Blackster Blogger Template 

blackster Blogger Template

Live Demo | Download

Blackster Blogger Template is a stylish looking heavily customized blogging blogger theme.

This free Blogspot template is well optimized and fully featured. Loaded with various widgets and options, this theme gives you an opportunity to create something exceptional with its fully responsive layout, you can create a fluid blog that will fit any screen size or device type.

Best created for blogs like fashion, makeup, travel, OOTD, daily blogging, public influencers, fashion, apparel, beauty blogging, reviews, etc.


So, Above I have shared 25+ Best SEO Friendly blogger templates that are free.

These templates are 100% AdSense friendly bloggers templates which will help you in getting AdSense approval fast.

If you liked the collection of these AdSense friendly and SEO friendly blogger templates then please, do share it on your social mediaplatforms.

And I will see you in the next one.

If you have some queries or questions feel free to ask me in the comment section.

Effective YouTube Growth Marketing Strategy

What is Effective YouTube Growth Marketing Strategy?

before moving to the Effective YouTube Growth Marketing Strategy let me explain the root. Social media consumers, experts, and influencers alike, would attest to the fact. YouTube is undoubtedly one of the frontrunners of the social media world along with Facebook. And also Instagram, and Twitter. Initially perceived to be merely a platform for entertainment, YouTube has managed to turn heads and amass an unfathomable amount of attention over the years. 

Entrepreneurs and thousands of content creators all of the world have recognized YouTube’s value as a platform and ergo, the importance of a YouTube growth marketing strategy. 

With every year that has passed, businesses of all sorts have optimized their content generation in accordance with each platform they concern themselves with. YouTube is one of them. 

If you are just getting started and have a long-term plan to get your brand on the market and cement its place there, you may want to consider implementing an effective YouTube growth marketing strategy. 

Exciting Tips To Create Killer YouTube Videos 

Before we get into the steps that you can follow to start boosting your brand, you ought to know how to make the best possible YouTube videos for your channel. Here are a few tips to get you started.

Make Videos As Per YouTube’s Audio And Video Specifications

This one is a no brainer. Unfortunately, many people do not get this right. Once you have your video files in place, you need to make sure your final output matches the specifications that YouTube recommends. 

  • Minimum video size: 426 x 240 pixels
  • Maximum video size: 3840 x 2160 pixels
  • Recommended video specifications:.MOV,.MPEG4, MP4,.AVI,.WMV,.MPEGPS, .FLV, 3GPP, or WebM
  • Maximum video length: 12 hours
  • Maximum video file size: 128 GB

If you find that your exported video does not match these specifications, be sure to get your hands on a youtube video editor to make the required changes.

Make Long Videos

Optimizing YouTube SEO involves making longer videos because longer videos translate to more watch time. If done right, longer videos can provide more value to your target audience and turn them into loyal subscribers. Several well-known brands have adopted this strategy, and it is paying dividends.

Invest In Quality Equipment

Here’s another tip that people often overlook. In an attempt to save money, many video creators end up compromising their video quality. Instead, do your research on the equipment you need to shoot your videos and invest in them.

Highly Effective Ways To Optimize Your YouTube Strategy

Effective YouTube Growth Marketing Strategy

Start A Channel For Your Business

Make sure you pick a cool channel name and open a brand account and not a regular account on google. This is to ensure multiple logins. Considering how maintaining your YouTube channel is continuous and often challenging, it would befit you to have a couple more members running the show.

Learn As Much As You Can From The Channels You Follow

It is essential to adopt the habits and strategies your favorite channels do to have a chance at the success they have. Be sure to evaluate and analyze what it is about their videos that capture the attention you would like to amass yourself. 

Most successful channels were able to achieve the things they did but pushing the envelope, which is what you may have to do as well. Giving a weird trend or approach that you are apprehensive about could potentially be a game-changer for you. 

Additionally, most of the channels that you look up to usually reveal their most rewarding techniques and strategies to their subscribers, members, patrons, and so forth. It may not be a bad idea to invest in a membership to learn what they know and take out all the guesswork. 

Study Your Target Audience for Effective YouTube Growth Marketing Strategy

This tip is another one that should go without saying. Studying your target audience allows you to make videos of value. Your YouTube channel has an analytics tab that will enable you to check your channel’s stats. You can also access valuable data on your subscriber demographics using the analytics tab. 

Knowing your demographics is a huge plus point because it improves your chances of accurately producing the kind of content your audience is likely to consume, as opposed to assuming what they might want and get it wrong. 

Be sure to regularly check your ‘demographics’ and ‘watch time’ tabs to find out where and when your videos are being watched, how old your viewers are, and so forth. 

Incorporate SEO Into Your YouTube Strategy

SEO is an integral part of growth marketing, and this tool has proven its importance in every sector. You need to make sure your videos are optimized for search to gain the most traction. Picking the right title with the right keywords for video is crucial. 

The title has to be relevant to the video you are making. Otherwise, it is considered clickbait. 

Apart from getting as many clicks as possible, your title lets your viewer know what you are video is about. An eye-catching thumbnail does the same thing. While you could use an appropriate freeze-frame for your thumbnail, being creative and coming up with a new thumbnail altogether to boost your results. 


There you have it – handy tips to get you started on YouTube. While viewers can very easily get a YouTube video downloader, download your videos, and strip your chances of making money from those videos alone, they can certainly help channel potential customers to your website. 

Must Read: OnePlus 8T Features Revealed Ahead Of Launch


How To Edit Instagram Videos To Match Your Brand Aesthetic?

Have you ever thought How To Edit Instagram Videos? Videos have become the fresh face of Instagram. For any brand that desires publicity. The quickest way to expand the viewer’s list is by publishing videos in the form of stories. And sometimes reels, or permanent video posts on Instagram.

These videos are engaging, catchy, and interesting for the target audience. A promo video maker software creates such stunning videos at the convenience of a few clicks in some minutes.

When compared to the sponsored Instagram images, the sponsored videos get three times more comments as per a recent study. This means that your chances of improving your visibility. And engagement depends on the quality of video uploaded on your Instagram account.

Thus, it becomes imperative to focus on the aesthetics of your brand and incorporate it into your videos. To understand the process better, keep reading this article.

Brand Aesthetics

Generally, the aesthetics of your brand is the collective total of smaller elements like customer engagement. And marketing techniques, the attitude of your team, and the overall appearance of your pages on social media.

When a prospective customer visits your website or your Instagram page, the vibes they carry back with them is the projection of your brand aesthetics. Confident, bold, outrageous, cute, girly, sophisticated, and outgoing are some typical vibes that users feel after visiting some Instagram pages.

Your brand aesthetics must be in line with the vibes of your products and services. For instance, if you sell sports shoes, your brand aesthetics of the Instagram page must exude confidence and boldness to attract the right audience.

What Are Instagram Videos?

How To Edit Instagram Videos

Currently, Instagram only can upload two types of content – Image and video. Any files you upload on Instagram (except images) are videos. These include a wide range of categories like Instagram Stories, Reels, Boomerangs, Video posts, and IGTV (Instagram TV).

There is absolutely no restraint on the length and type of video content that you wish to upload on Instagram.

If you want to capture the attention of your target audience for a short while. Choose the Boomerang or Instagram Story option that can help you in uploading quick and instant videos of length less than 30 seconds.

Top Instagram influencers are using different filters on their brand page’s videos to create a unique position of their content on the internet.

Video Vs Photo Editing

Did you know the shortest of the videos (even the ones that are 10 seconds long) can be edited? The capacity to edit Instagram videos is not restricted to its length. You can create stunning visual effects on the videos for uploading them on Instagram Stories as a short Boomerang or Time Lapse videos.

The technique of video editing differs significantly from the concept of image editing. For many years, the accessibility of image editing software has been increasingly high, even for mobile phones. You had the control to edit your images on the go. On the contrary, the video editing types of software were only restricted to PCs or laptops.

With the advancement of technology, you have the control to edit your videos in a quality that is as good as a professionally edited video right at the convenience of your mobile phone.

Instagram Video Editing On Different Devices.

Check out the latest types of software that give you the convenience and freedom for creating the right Instagram video that matches your Brand Aesthetics. They are categorised based on the devices you can use them from.

  • Tablets or Phones: Listed below is the best video editor for Instagram that can edit videos from iPad, iPhone, Android, Windows, and similar types of devices. You can either use them as applications installed on your device or online applications available on the web.
    • VSCO.
    • InShot.
    • Adobe Premiere Rush.
    • WeVideo.
    • StoriesStudio.
  • Laptops or PCs: For an improved appearance of the videos, you must get the best video editing software that comes with the capacity to create premium and advanced modifications to your captured videos. Here is the list of different software available for laptops or PCs.
    • VSDC.
    • Blender.
    • Lightworks.
    • Machete Video Editor Lite.
    • Shotcut.
    • HitFilm.

What Is A Video Cover On Instagram?

Video Covers are the most vital part of your Instagram video. Most of the users browsing the internet do not have functional internet connectivity. Thus, they only view the first image (cover of your video) until the video loads.

Even the users that have good connectivity first see the cover picture of the video before the video starts playing. This only happens when your video is posted on your account (unlike Instagram Stories).

Note: If you don’t save an image as your Instagram video cover, the platform automatically selects the first frame of the video as the default cover.

How To Edit An Instagram Video Cover?

The Instagram Video Cover must carry the right aesthetics of your brand. You can also use the video editing applications listed in the section above to get the right vibe of your brand by choosing from a range of pre-designed and custom filters.

If you choose to manually create a filter for your brand, start by adjective the ambiance, brightness, contrast, and tint levels of your video. You can add or subtract your brand logo at the corner of the video file. By playing with the choices on the software, you can create the right filter that matches the vibes and colours of your brand. This effortlessly creates a well put-together look for your company’s Instagram page.


The type of video editor that you choose for editing your Instagram videos plays a vital role in the making or breaking of your brand image. You must thoroughly try to experiment with the elements offered in different software to find the best one that works for you.

The overall look and sound of your video determine its quality. If the quality of your video is better than the average videos on the platform, you will gain many followers on your Instagram page. This will significantly improve your publicity on social media apps. And we hope you learnt, How To Edit Instagram Videos

Also Read: Google Adsense Alternatives – Top 6 In 2020

Google Adsense Alternatives – Top 6 In 2020

Google Adsense is one of the best tool to earn money online.

However, most bloggers are relying on Google Adsense because it is the most reliable and trustworthy tool that helps every blogger to make money from their blog.

It is best, but Is it the only one that is available to monetize your blog or to make money on the whole internet?

In my perspective, No, it is not.

There are a lot of alternatives to google AdSense that can help you to make money online. 

So, in this article, we will have a look at the top 6 best Google AdSense alternatives in 2020,

let’s get to it.

What Is Google Adsense?

Google Adsense is the online money-making tool that helps every blogger to monetize their blogs.

However, in simple terms,

It is an advertising program that is launched in 2003 by Google that allows to blogger and webmaster to monetize their blog. 

Maybe you have seen all these types of things on the whole Internet or Web. 

With that said, let move to our main topic, which is the top best Google Adsense alternatives.

Best Google Adsense Alternatives In 2021

Here is the list of top best Google Adsense Alternatives In 2021.

  2. Amazon Native Shopping Ads
  3. PopAds
  4. PopCash
  5. InfoLinks
  6. PropellerAds

Note: We will regularly update this list to give you fresh Adsense alternatives.

So, please bookmark this page and keep coming back when I upgrade it.

let’s dive it in more detail.

1. – Best Alternative To Adsense best google adsense alternative

Probably you have heard about because Yahoo and Bing launched

Moreover, it is the direct competitor of Adsense and one of the largest contextual Ad networks it is.

Even it can give you more earning rather than Adsense because mostly traffic or advertiser that has the United States and other foreign countries.

It is more profitable for Indians.

Getting Approval is a bit difficult in,

but yes,

if you have a quality blog and getting the proper amount of traffic from big countries, so you can quickly get AdSense approval for your blog in a short period.

The payment threshold is 100$. And payment you can receive via Payoneer.

2. Amazon Native Shopping Ads

amazon native shopping ads -  adsense alternative

As you know,

Amazon is the most popular e-commerce site, and we can also believe it blindly.

That’s why I have included it is in our google Adsense alternative list

Before that, it was only the amazon affiliate program, but after that,

Amazon has released its amazon shopping ads, which is on CPM based. 

Of course, it is an excellent choice and best alternative of Adsense,

but it is suitable for that website, which is getting traffic from the US and EU.

As well I don’t consider you should use it for monetizing your blog.

Rather than going for amazon shipping ads, you can use their affiliate program.

It might be best for you. 

But still, it will be best for those blogs which are getting the most traffic from the US and EU. 

3. PopAds

popads adesense alternative

Perfect advertising platform for advertisers because PopAds has quality traffic, and it is most inexpensive for running ads in big countries. 

It is also fantastic for publishers and helps to monetize their blog revenue by showing their pop ads.

And suitable for movies, songs, adults, and other websites that AdSense doesn’t allow.

So, yeah, if you are planning to make a movie downloading website or another website,

which may be illegal in terms of Google AdSense so you can use PopAds for monetizing your blog.

4. PopCash

popcash adsense alternative

PopCash is known as a popunder network that is very popular in terms of monetizing a blog with their ads. 

And suitable for that website who wants to promote their affiliate products in some big countries.

PopCash offers worldwide coverage and has 850 million monthly visitors and 50,000 active publishers.

And if you want to run ads with the help of PopCash so you can get started with only 5$ with full control of ads and analytics.

That’s why it is known as the best Google Adsense alternative.

5. InfoLinks


Infolinks is among the most significant and worldwide advertising platform,

helping over 200,000 online publishers in 128 countries to earn cash out of their unused ad space. 

The advertisements are totally customizable and provide an exceptional positioning to boost click-through rate without interrupting the appearance and feel of the site. 

They have given an intext option that takes your existing content and inserts text ads into it wherever they have a suitable ad to show your visitors.

If a customer’s mouse hovers over the text link, an advertisement will pop up for the visitor to view. 

You can take payment via Wire Transfer, Paypal, Payoneer, Western Union, Echeck or ACH.

The payment threshold depends on which type of payment you are selecting. 50$ for ACH and 100$ for Wire Transfer or Western Union.

6. Propeller Ads

propellerads alternative to google adsense

PropellerAds is a tremendous ad network because there is something that I prefer is of there technology innovation.

PropellerAds started in 2011 and quickly got popular with its high CPM’s. 

Mostly peoples earned thousands of dollars from this website, and most people mentioned on the internet. 

You can use it in all types of niches like Entertainment, videos, games, movies, and some other slots which AdSense doesn’t allow.

They continuously update themselves for giving the best user experience for their users,

now they have released their web push notification Ad type. Their ad performance is terrific and has all kinds of Ad types.

It allows you to minimum payout 25$, and I think it will be best for newbie and intermediate bloggers.

Top Google AdSense Alternatives For YouTube Channel


As we know doing blogging is the most excellent way to make money online.

But In this epoch, everyone loves pictorial, animated, and video representation rather than reading.

That’s why everyone likes to watch videos instead of reading blogs.

And if you are planning to switch from blogging to video industry like on YouTube,

and want to make money from it,

then you can go without hesitating on YouTube. 

If you have a lot of skills like creating amazing videos, Communication skills, and many more so YouTube is available for you. 

Of course, you are going on YouTube to make money and get a bit of popularity from it;

there are lots of ways to make money from YouTube-like blogging has. 

You can monetize your YouTube Channel by creating Sponsor Videos, Affiliate Videos, and by using “AdSense” which is very popular.

But if you have got banned from AdSense permanently, so what to do next.

Yes, you can do Affiliate Marketing and Sponsorship.

But still,

If you want to make more money from it so here are the top best AdSense alternatives for the YouTube channel.

AdRev – Adsense Alternative For Youtube


AdRev is the best Google AdSense alternative for YouTube because YouTube itself verifies this.

And it gives multi-platform technology and services to content owners — the most beneficial thing it offers a lot of tools for video optimization and promotion.

On the other hand, they ask for 500 daily views to qualify it.

And they give payment with “PayPal,” as well as the minimum withdraw amount is 10$. 

I highly recommend you to go on AdRev if you are finding AdSense alternatives for monetizing your YouTube Channel or Videos.

Freedom – Best AdSense Alternatives For YouTube


Freedom is the most effective YouTube partnership network. It integrates your channel with multiple platforms and connects with other creators to enhance your business.

It doesn’t require any contract or commitment.

However, there’s no minimum pay-out if you have made $1 then you will get $1 via PayPal. 

Final Thoughts On Google Adsense Alternatives

AdSense is extremely best for monetizing your blog rather than others,

but on that case in which you are not able to approve Adsense account or your website doesn’t follow AdSense policy so you can’t join it. 

So, these all are the best Google Adsense alternatives, which can make the right amount of money.

It depends on you either you choose Adsense or another platform for monetizing your blog.

There are a lot of Google AdSense alternatives, but these are the most popular ones,

and you can trust in all these websites, which I have mentioned. 

I hope you liked this article if you liked it, so please share it because sharing is caring.